FROM THE FIRST TRANSISTOR TO THE WONDERFUL ZENITH TRANSISTOR RADIOS
This distinguished team began work on making an amplification device that did not use heated filaments or a vacuum. The quest turned out to be significant and lengthy. For some detailed information on the history, technicality and chemistry, there is good information at this PBS Website location.
On December 16, 1947, after two years work, Walter Brattain and John Bardeen demonstrated solid-state amplification. Shockley was at home on that historic day. Shockley's absence would play a significant role in his future relationship with the team. “When Bardeen and Brattain called Shockley to tell him of the invention, Shockley was both pleased at the group's results and furious that he had not been directly involved. He decided that to preserve his standing, he would have to do Bardeen and Brattain one better.” Even though William Shockley technically did not conduct first successful transistor experiment, shortly, he invented and patented the junction transistor which would become the most popular transistor type.
A reproduction of the first transistor
of the research team's undying patience and determination; some called it the
the new device a “persisor” John Pierce, Bell Labs Engineer, actually named the
transistor--- for trans-resistor.||
William Shockley-Early 70's
Back at Bell Labs, they encountered tremendous engineering production problems in the manufacturing of early transistors. It wasn’t until October, 1952, that the first transistorized telephone equipment was installed at Englewood, NJ. What would be a "buy of the 20th century," in 1952, Bell Labs licensed their technology to GE, IBM, Raytheon, Texas Inst. and “then-to-be” Sony Corporation for $25,000 each!